Barbato, Joseph. “Latino Writers in the American Market.” Publishers Weekly 238 (February 1, 1991): 17-21. Discusses the obstacles facing Chicano authors and the troubled publishing of Villaseñor’s Rain of Gold. Also includes an interview with Villaseñor, who gives his side of the publishing debate.
Guilbault, Rose Del Castillo. “Americanization Is Tough on Macho.’ ” In American Voices: Multicultural Literacy and Critical Thinking, edited by Dolores LaGuardia and Hans P. Guth. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield, 1992. Guilbault provides a sociolinguistic framework and a more complete understanding of the original Hispanic meaning of macho. (This book also contains an interview with Victor Villaseñor originally printed in the San Jose News.)
Hartman, Steven Lee. “On the History of Spanish macho.” Hispanic Linguistics 1, no. 1 (1984): 97-114. Deals with one of the most misunderstood loan words in contemporary American society. The transmogrification of macho from positive to negative ideal is chronicled, with reasons for the change outlined.
Kelsey, Verlene. “Mining for a Usable Past: Acts of Recovery, Resistance and Continuity in Victor Villaseñor’s Rain of Gold.” Bilingual Review 18 (January-April, 1993): 79-85. In this critical study of Rain of Gold, Kelsey briefly mentions Macho! as a transition novel in Villaseñor’s literary career. Both novels share similar characteristics: “epigraphs that refer to natural cycles and mythic phenomena, chapter prologues/epilogues that set a historical context, and chapters that reveal the characters’ personal experiences.”
Lewis, Marvin A. Introduction to the Chicano Novel. Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, Spanish Speaking Outreach Institute, 1982.
Rocard, Marcienne. The Children of the Sun: Mexican-Americans in the Literature of the United States. Translated by Edward G. Brown, Jr. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1989. A general literary history that discusses works by Anglo and Mexican American writers. The descriptions of stock type characters are helpful in understanding Villaseñor’s work. A good introduction to the subject.
Sandoval, Ralph, and Alleen P. Nilsen. “The Mexican-American Experience.” English Journal 63 (January, 1974): 61. Sandoval suggests that while verisimilitude may be strained in parts of this first book by Villaseñor, the drama portrays empathetic characters who may have real-life counterparts. Moreover, the novel is compelling and powerful, told in language the reader will recognize as realistic and direct.
Shirley, Carl R., and Paula W. Shirley. Understanding Chicano Literature. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988.
Tatum, Charles M. Chicano Literature. Boston: Twayne, 1982.
Она сейчас наверняка уже над Атлантикой. Беккер взглянул на часы. Час сорок пять ночи. Он в недоумении посмотрел на двухцветного.