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Water scarcity is the lack of fresh water resources to meet water demand. It affects every continent and was listed in 2015 by the World Economic Forum as the largest global risk in terms of potential impact over the next decade.[1] It is manifested by partial or no satisfaction of expressed demand, economic competition for water quantity or quality, disputes between users, irreversible depletion of groundwater, and negative impacts on the environment.[2] Two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year.[3][4][5][6] Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round.[3] Half of the world’s largest cities experience water scarcity.[5]

Although a mere 0.014% of all water on Earth is both fresh and easily accessible (of the remaining water, 97% is saline and a little less than 3% is hard to access), technically, there is a sufficient amount of freshwater on a global scale, for humanity to get by. However, due to unequal distribution (exacerbated by climate change) resulting in some very wet and some very dry geographic locations, plus a sharp rise in global freshwater demand in recent decades, humanity is facing a water crisis, with demand expected to outstrip supply by 40% in 2030, if current trends continue.[5][7]

The essence of global water scarcity is the geographic and temporal mismatch between freshwater demand and availability.[8][9] The increasing world population, improving living standards, changing consumption patterns, and expansion of irrigated agriculture are the main driving forces for the rising global demand for water.[10][11]Climate change, such as altered weather-patterns (including droughts or floods), deforestation, increased pollution, and wasteful use of water can cause insufficient supply.[12] At the global level and on an annual basis, enough freshwater is available to meet such demand, but spatial and temporal variations of water demand and availability are large, leading to (physical) water scarcity in several parts of the world during specific times of the year.[3] All causes of water scarcity are related to human interference with the water cycle. Scarcity varies over time as a result of natural hydrological variability, but varies even more so as a function of prevailing economic policy, planning and management approaches. Scarcity can be expected to intensify with most forms of economic development, but, if correctly identified, many of its causes can be predicted, avoided or mitigated.[2]

Some countries have already proven that decoupling water use from economic growth is possible. For example, in Australia, water consumption declined by 40% between 2001 and 2009 while the economy grew by more than 30%.[13] The International Resource Panel of the UN states that governments have tended to invest heavily in largely inefficient solutions: mega-projects like dams, canals, aqueducts, pipelines and water reservoirs, which are generally neither environmentally sustainable nor economically viable. The most cost-effective way of decoupling water use from economic growth, according to the scientific panel, is for governments to create holistic water management plans that take into account the entire water cycle: from source to distribution, economic use, treatment, recycling, reuse and return to the environment.[13]

Supply and demand[edit]

The total amount of easily accessible freshwater on Earth, in the form of surface water (rivers and lakes) or groundwater (in aquifers, for example), is 14.000 cubic kilometres (nearly 3359 cubic miles). Of this total amount, 'just' 5.000 cubic kilometres are being used and reused by humanity. Hence, in theory, there is more than enough freshwater available to meet the demands of the current world population of 7 billion people, and even support population growth to 9 billion or more. Due to the unequal geographical distribution and especially the unequal consumption of water, however, it is a scarce resource in some parts of the world and for some parts of the population.[7]

Scarcity as a result of consumption is caused primarily by the extensive use of water in agriculture/livestock breeding and industry. People in developed countries generally use about 10 times more water daily than those in developing countries.[14] A large part of this is indirect use in water-intensive agricultural and industrial production processes of consumer goods, such as fruit, oil seed crops and cotton. Because many of these production chains have been globalised, a lot of water in developing countries is being used and polluted in order to produce goods destined for consumption in developed countries.[7]

Physical and economic scarcity[edit]

Water scarcity can result from two mechanisms:

Physical water scarcity results from inadequate natural water resources to supply a region's demand, and economic water scarcity results from poor management of the sufficient available water resources. According to the United Nations Development Programme, the latter is found more often to be the cause of countries or regions experiencing water scarcity, as most countries or regions have enough water to meet household, industrial, agricultural, and environmental needs, but lack the means to provide it in an accessible manner.[15] Around one fifth of the world's population currently live in regions affected by Physical water scarcity, where there is inadequate water resources to meet a country's or regional demand, including the water needed to fulfill the demand of ecosystems to function effectively.[15] Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity. It also occurs where water seems abundant but where resources are over-committed, such as when there is over development of hydraulic infrastructure for irrigation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater as well as other forms of exploitation or overuse.[16]

Economic water scarcity is caused by a lack of investment in infrastructure or technology to draw water from rivers, aquifers or other water sources, or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand for water. One quarter of the world's population is affected by economic water scarcity. Economic water scarcity includes a lack of infrastructure, causing the people without reliable access to water to have to travel long distances to fetch water, that is often contaminated from rivers for domestic and agricultural uses. Large parts of Africa suffer from economic water scarcity; developing water infrastructure in those areas could therefore help to reduce poverty. Critical conditions often arise for economically poor and politically weak communities living in already dry environment. Consumption increases with GDP per capita in most developed countries the average amount is around 200–300 litres daily. In underdeveloped countries (e.g. African countries such as Mozambique), average daily water consumption per capita was below 10 L. This is against the backdrop of international organisations, which recommend a minimum of 20 L of water (not including the water needed for washing clothes), available at most 1 km from the household. Increased water consumption is correlated with increasing income, as measured by GDP per capita. In countries suffering from water shortages water is the subject of speculation.[17]

Human right to water[edit]

Further information: Right to water

The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights established a foundation of five core attributes for water security. They declare that the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible, and affordable water for personal and domestic use.[15]

Millennium Development Goals (MDG)[edit]

Main article: Millennium Development Goals

At the 2000 Millennium Summit, the United Nations addressed the effects of economic water scarcity by making increased access to safe drinking water an international development goal. During this time, they drafted the Millennium Development Goals and all 189 UN members agreed on eight goals. MDG 7 sets a target for reducing the proportion of the population without sustainable safe drinking water access by half by 2015. This would mean that more than 600 million people would gain access to a safe source of drinking water. In 2016, the Sustainable Development Goals replace the Millennium Development Goals.

Effects on environment[edit]

Water scarcity has many negative impacts on the environment, including lakes, rivers, wetlands, and other fresh water resources. The resulting water overuse that is related to water scarcity, often located in areas of irrigation agriculture, harms the environment in several ways including increased salinity, nutrient pollution, and the loss of floodplains and wetlands.[15][20] Furthermore, water scarcity makes flow management in the rehabilitation of urban streams problematic.[21]

Through the last hundred years, more than half of the Earth's wetlands have been destroyed and have disappeared.[12] These wetlands are important not only because they are the habitats of numerous inhabitants such as mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and invertebrates, but they support the growing of rice and other food crops as well as provide water filtration and protection from storms and flooding. Freshwater lakes such as the Aral Sea in central Asia have also suffered. Once the fourth largest freshwater lake, it has lost more than 58,000 square km of area and vastly increased in salt concentration over the span of three decades.[12]

Subsidence, or the gradual sinking of landforms, is another result of water scarcity. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that subsidence has affected more than 17,000 square miles in 45 U.S. states, 80 percent of it due to groundwater usage. In some areas east of Houston, Texas the land has dropped by more than nine feet due to subsidence.[22] Brownwood, a subdivision near Baytown, Texas, was abandoned due to frequent flooding caused by subsidence and has since become part of the Baytown Nature Center.

Climate change[edit]

Aquifer drawdown or overdrafting and the pumping of fossil water increases the total amount of water within the hydrosphere subject to transpiration and evaporation processes, thereby causing accretion in water vapour and cloud cover, the primary absorbers of infrared radiation in the earth's atmosphere. Adding water to the system has a forcing effect on the whole earth system, an accurate estimate of which hydrogeological fact is yet to be quantified.

Depletion of freshwater resources[edit]

Apart from the conventional surface water sources of freshwater such as rivers and lakes, other resources of freshwater such as groundwater and glaciers have become more developed sources of freshwater, becoming the main source of clean water. Groundwater is water that has pooled below the surface of the Earth and can provide a usable quantity of water through springs or wells. These areas where groundwater is collected are also known as aquifers. Glaciers provide freshwater in the form meltwater, or freshwater melted from snow or ice, that supply streams or springs as temperatures rise. More and more of these sources are being drawn upon as conventional sources' usability decreases due to factors such as pollution or disappearance due to climate changes. The exponential growth rate of the human population is a main contributing factor in the increasing use of these types of water resources.[23]

Groundwater[edit]

Until recent history, groundwater was not a highly utilized resource. In the 1960s, more and more groundwater aquifers developed. Changes in knowledge, technology and funding have allowed for focused development into abstracting water from groundwater resources away from surface water resources. These changes allowed for progress in society such as the "agricultural groundwater revolution", expanding the irrigation sector allowing for increased food production and development in rural areas.[24] Groundwater supplies nearly half of all drinking water in the world.[25] The large volumes of water stored underground in most aquifers have a considerable buffer capacity allowing for water to be withdrawn during periods of drought or little rainfall.[23] This is crucial for people that live in regions that cannot depend on precipitation or surface water as a supply alone, instead providing reliable access to water all year round. As of 2010, the world's aggregated groundwater abstraction is estimated at approximately 1,000 km3 per year, with 67% used for irrigation, 22% used for domestic purposes and 11% used for industrial purposes.[23] The top ten major consumers of abstracted water (India, China, United States of America, Pakistan, Iran, Bangladesh, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and Italy) make up 72% of all abstracted water use worldwide.[23] Groundwater has become crucial for the livelihoods and food security of 1.2 to 1.5 billion rural households in the poorer regions of Africa and Asia.[26]

Although groundwater sources are quite prevalent, one major area of concern is the renewal rate or recharge rate of some groundwater sources. Abstracting from groundwater sources that are non-renewable could lead to exhaustion if not properly monitored and managed.[27] Another concern of increased groundwater usage is the diminished water quality of the source over time. Reduction of natural outflows, decreasing stored volumes, declining water levels and water degradation are commonly observed in groundwater systems.[23] Groundwater depletion may result in many negative effects such as increased cost of groundwater pumping, induced salinity and other water quality changes, land subsidence, degraded springs and reduced baseflows. Human pollution is also harmful to this important resource.

Glaciers[edit]

Glaciers are noted as a vital water source due to their contribution to stream flow. Rising global temperatures have noticeable effects on the rate at which glaciers melt, causing glaciers in general to shrink worldwide.[28] Although the meltwater from these glaciers are increasing the total water supply for the present, the disappearance of glaciers in the long term will diminish available water resources. Increased meltwater due to rising global temperatures can also have negative effects such as flooding of lakes and dams and catastrophic results.[29]

Measurement[edit]

Hydrologists today typically assess water scarcity by looking at the population-water equation. This is done by comparing the amount of total available water resources per year to the population of a country or region. A popular approach to measuring water scarcity has been to rank countries according to the amount of annual water resources available per person. For example, according to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator,[30] a country or region is said to experience "water stress" when annual water supplies drop below 1,700 cubic metres per person per year. At levels between 1,700 and 1,000 cubic metres per person per year, periodic or limited water shortages can be expected. When water supplies drop below 1,000 cubic metres per person per year, the country faces "water scarcity".[31] The United Nations' FAO states that by 2025, 1.9 billion people will live in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions.[32] The World Bank adds that climate change could profoundly alter future patterns of both water availability and use, thereby increasing levels of water stress and insecurity, both at the global scale and in sectors that depend on water.[33]

Other ways of measuring water scarcity include examining the physical existence of water in nature, comparing nations with lower or higher volumes of water available for use. This method often fails to capture the accessibility of the water resource to the population that may need it. Others have related water availability to population.

Another measurement, calculated as part of a wider assessment of water management in 2007,[34] aimed to relate water availability to how the resource was actually used. It therefore divided water scarcity into 'physical' and 'economic'. Physical water scarcity is where there is not enough water to meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to function effectively. Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity. It also occurs where water seems abundant but where resources are over-committed, such as when there is overdevelopment of hydraulic infrastructure for irrigation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater. Water stress harms living things because every organism needs water to live.

Renewable freshwater resources[edit]

Renewable freshwater supply is a metric often used in conjunction when evaluating water scarcity. This metric is informative because it can describe the total available water resource each country contains. By knowing the total available water source, an idea can be gained about whether a country is prone to experiencing physical water scarcity. This metric has its faults in that it is an average; precipitation delivers water unevenly across the planet each year and annual renewable water resources vary from year to year. This metric also does not describe the accessibility of water to individuals, households, industries, or the government. Lastly, as this metric is a description of a whole country, it does not accurately portray whether a country is experiencing water scarcity. Canada and Brazil both have very high levels of available water supply, but still experience various water related problems.[23]

It can be observed that tropical countries in Asia and Africa have low availability of freshwater resources.

The following table displays the average annual renewable freshwater supply by country including both surface-water and groundwater supplies.[35] This table represents data from the UN FAO AQUASTAT, much of which are produced by modeling or estimation as opposed to actual measurements.

RankCountryAnnual renewable water

resources (km3/year)

RegionYear of estimate
1Kuwait0.02Asia2008
2St. Kitts and Nevis0.02North and Central America2000
3Maldives0.03Asia1999
4Malta0.07Europe2005
5Antigua and Barbuda0.1North and Central America2000
6Qatar0.1Asia2008
7Barbados0.1North and Central America2003
8Bahrain0.1Asia2008
9United Arab Emirates0.2Asia2008
10Cape Verde0.3Africa2005
11Djibouti0.3Africa2005
12Cyprus0.3Europe2007
13Libya0.6Africa2005
14Singapore0.6Asia1975
15Jordan0.9Asia2008
16Comoros1.2Africa2005
17Oman1.4Asia2008
18Luxembourg1.6Europe2007
19Israel1.8Asia2008
20Yemen2.1Asia2008
21Saudi Arabia2.4Asia2008
22Mauritius2.8Africa2005
23Burundi3.6Africa1987
24Trinidad and Tobago3.8North and Central America2000
25Swaziland4.5Africa1987
26Lebanon4.5Asia2008
27Tunisia4.6Africa2005
28Reunion5.0Africa1988
29Lesotho5.2Africa1987
30Eritrea6.3Africa2001
31Macedonia6.4Europe2001
32Armenia7.8Former Soviet Union2008
33Gambia8.0Africa2005
34Brunei8.5Asia1999
35Jamaica9.4North and Central America2000
36Rwanda9.5Africa2005
37Mauritania11.4Africa2005
38Algeria11.6Africa2005
39Moldova11.7Former Soviet Union1997
40Estonia12.3Europe2007
41Estonia12.8Former Soviet Union1997
42Haiti14.0North and Central America2000
43Somalia14.2Africa2005
44Botswana14.7Africa2001
45Togo14.7Africa2001
46Czech Republic16.0Europe2007
47Denmark16.3Europe2007
48Syria16.8Asia2008
49Malawi17.3Africa2001
50Burkina Faso17.5Africa2001
51Namibia17.7Africa2005
52Belize18.6North and Central America2000
53Zimbabwe20.0Africa1987
54Belgium20.0Europe2007
55Dominican Republic21.0North and Central America2000
56Lithuania24.5Former Soviet Union2007
57El Salvador25.2North and Central America2001
58Romania25.7Europe2007
59Benin25.8Africa2001
60Equatorial Guinea26Africa2001
61Fiji28.6Oceania1987
62Morocco29.0Africa2005
63Kenya30.7Africa2005
64Guinea-Bissau31.0Africa2005
65Slovenia32.1Europe2007
66Niger33.7Africa2005
67Azerbaijan34.7Former Soviet Union2008
68Mongolia34.8Asia1999
69Bosnia and Herzegovina37.5Europe2003
70Cuba38.1North and Central America2000
71Senegal39.4Africa1987
72Albania41.7Europe2001
73Chad43.0Africa1987
74Solomon Islands44.7Oceania1987
75Kyrgyzstan46.5Former Soviet Union1997
76Ireland46.8Europe2003
77South Africa50.0Africa2005
78Sri Lanka50.0Asia1999
79Slovakia50.1Europe2007
80Ghana53.2Africa2001
81Switzerland53.5Europe2007
82Belarus58.0Former Soviet Union1997
83Egypt58.3Africa2005
84Turkmenistan60.9Former Soviet Union1997
85Poland63.1Europe2007
86Georgia63.3Former Soviet Union2008
87Sudan64.5Africa2005
88Afghanistan65.0Asia1997
89Uganda66.0Africa2005
90Taiwan67.0Asia2000
91Korea Rep69.7Asia1999
92Greece72.0Europe2007
93Uzbekistan72.2Former Soviet Union2003
94Portugal73.6Europe2007
95Iraq75.6Asia2008
96Korea DPR77.1Asia1999
97Côte d'Ivoire81Africa2001
98Austria84.0Europe2007
99Netherlands89.7Europe2007
100Tanzania91Africa2001
101Bhutan95.0Asia1987
102Honduras95.9North and Central America2000
103Tajikistan99.7Former Soviet Union1997
104Mali100.0Africa2005
105Zambia105.2Africa2001
106Croatia105.5Europe1998
107Bulgaria107.2Europe2010
108Kazakhstan109.6Former Soviet Union1997
109Ethiopia110.0Africa1987
110Finland110.0Europe2007
111Spain111.1Europe2007
112Guatemala111.3North and Central America2000
113Costa Rica112.4North and Central America2000
114Hungary116.4Europe2007
115Suriname122.0South America2003
116Iran137.5Asia2008
117Uruguay139.0South America2000
118Ukraine139.5Former Soviet Union1997
119Central African Republic144.4Africa2005
120Panama148.0North and Central America2000
121Sierra Leone160.0Africa1987
122Gabon164.0Africa1987
123Iceland170.0Europe2007
124Italy175.0Europe2007
125United Kingdom175.3Europe2007
126Sweden183.4Europe2007
127Angola184.0Africa1987
128France186.3Europe2007
129Germany188.0Europe2007
130Nicaragua196.7North and Central America2000
131Serbia-Montenegro*208.5Europe2003
132Nepal210.2Asia1999
133Turkey213.6Asia2008
134Mozambique217.1Africa2005
135Guinea226.0Africa1987
136Liberia232.0Africa1987
137Pakistan233.8Asia2003
138Guyana241.0South America2000
139Cameroon285.5Africa2003
140Nigeria286.2Africa2005
141Laos333.6Asia2003
142Paraguay336.0South America2000
143Australia336.1Oceania2005
144Madagascar337.0Africa2005
145Latvia337.3Former Soviet Union2007
146Norway389.4Europe2007
147New Zealand397.0Oceania1995
148Thailand409.9Asia1999
149Japan430.0Asia1999
150Ecuador432.0South America2000
151Mexico457.2North and Central America2000
152Cambodia476.1Asia1999
153Philippines479.0Asia1999
154Malaysia580.0Asia1999
155Bolivia622.5South America2000
156Papua New Guinea801.0Oceania1987
157Argentina814.0South America2000
158Congo832.0Africa1987
159Vietnam891.2Asia1999
160Chile922.0South America2000
161Myanmar1045.6Asia1999
162Bangladesh1210.6Asia1999
163Venezuela1233.2South America2000
164Congo, Democratic Republic (formerly Zaire)1283Africa2001
165India1907.8Asia1999
166Peru1913.0South America2000
167Colombia2132.0South America2000
168China2738.8Asia2008
169Indonesia2838.0Asia1999
170United States of America3069.0North and Central America1985
171Canada3300.0North and Central America1985
172Russia4498.0Former Soviet Union1997
173Brazil8233.0South America2000

Water stress[edit]

The United Nations (UN) estimates that, of 1.4 billion cubic kilometers (1 quadrillion acre-feet) of water on Earth, just 200,000 cubic kilometers (162.1 billion acre-feet) represent fresh water available for human consumption.[37]

More than one in every six people in the world is water stressed, meaning that they do not have sufficient access to potable water.[15] Those that are water stressed make up 1.1 billion people in the world and are living in developing countries. According to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator,[30] a country or region is said to experience "water stress" when annual water supplies drop below 1,700 cubic metres per person per year. At levels between 1,700 and 1,000 cubic meters per person per year, periodic or limited water shortages can be expected. When a country is below 1,000 cubic meters per person per year, the country then faces water scarcity . In 2006, about 700 million people in 43 countries were living below the 1,700 cubic metres per person threshold.[15] Water stress is ever intensifying in regions such as China, India, and Sub-Saharan Africa, which contains the largest number of water stressed countries of any region with almost one fourth of the population living in a water stressed country.[15] The world's most water stressed region is the Middle East with averages of 1,200 cubic metres of water per person.[15] In China, more than 538 million people are living in a water-stressed region. Much of the water stressed population currently live in river basins where the usage of water resources greatly exceed the renewal of the water source.

Changes in climate[edit]

Another popular opinion is that the amount of available freshwater is decreasing because of climate change. Climate change has caused receding glaciers, reduced stream and river flow, and shrinking lakes and ponds. Many aquifers have been over-pumped and are not recharging quickly. Although the total fresh water supply is not used up, much has become polluted, salted, unsuitable or otherwise unavailable for drinking, industry and agriculture. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.[38]

A New York Times article, "Southeast Drought Study Ties Water Shortage to Population, Not Global Warming", summarizes the findings of Columbia University researcher on the subject of the droughts in the American Southeast between 2005 and 2007. The findings published in the Journal of Climate say that the water shortages resulted from population size more than rainfall. Census figures show that Georgia’s population rose from 6.48 to 9.54 million between 1990 and 2007.[39] After studying data from weather instruments, computer models, and tree ring measurements, they found that the droughts were not unprecedented and result from normal climate patterns and random weather events. "Similar droughts unfolded over the last thousand years", the researchers wrote, "Regardless of climate change, they added, similar weather patterns can be expected regularly in the future, with similar results."[39] As the temperature increases, rainfall in the Southeast will increase but because of evaporation the area may get even drier. The researchers concluded with a statement saying that any rainfall comes from complicated internal processes in the atmosphere and are very hard to predict because of the large amount of variables.

Water crisis[edit]

When there is not enough potable water for a given population, the threat of a water crisis is realized.[40] The United Nations and other world organizations consider a variety of regions to have water crises of global concern.[41][42] Other organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, argue that there are no water crises in such places, but steps must still be taken to avoid one.[43]

Effects of water crisis[edit]

There are several principal manifestations of the water crisis.

Waterborne diseases caused by lack of sanitation and hygiene are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. For children under age five, waterborne diseases are a leading cause of death. According to the World Bank, 88 percent of all waterborne diseases are caused by unsafe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene.[47]

Water is the underlying tenuous balance of safe water supply, but controllable factors such as the management and distribution of the water supply itself contribute to further scarcity.

A 2006 United Nations report focuses on issues of governance as the core of the water crisis, saying "There is enough water for everyone" and "Water insufficiency is often due to mismanagement, corruption, lack of appropriate institutions, bureaucratic inertia and a shortage of investment in both human capacity and physical infrastructure".[48] Official data also shows a clear correlation between access to safe water and GDP per capita.[49]

It has also been claimed, primarily by economists, that the water situation has occurred because of a lack of property rights, government regulations and subsidies in the water sector, causing prices to be too low and consumption too high.[50][51][52]

Vegetation and wildlife are fundamentally dependent upon adequate freshwater resources. Marshes, bogs and riparian zones are more obviously dependent upon sustainable water supply, but forests and other upland ecosystems are equally at risk of significant productivity changes as water availability is diminished. In the case of wetlands, considerable area has been simply taken from wildlife use to feed and house the expanding human population. But other areas have suffered reduced productivity from gradual diminishing of freshwater inflow, as upstream sources are diverted for human use. In seven states of the U.S. over 80 percent of all historic wetlands were filled by the 1980s, when Congress acted to create a "no net loss" of wetlands.

In Europe extensive loss of wetlands has also occurred with resulting loss of biodiversity. For example, many bogs in Scotland have been developed or diminished through human population expansion. One example is the Portlethen Moss in Aberdeenshire.

On Madagascar's highland plateau, a massive transformation occurred that eliminated virtually all the heavily forested vegetation in the period 1970 to 2000. The slash and burn agriculture eliminated about ten percent of the total country's native biomass and converted it to a barren wasteland. These effects were from overpopulation and the necessity to feed poor indigenous peoples, but the adverse effects included widespread gully erosion that in turn produced heavily silted rivers that "run red" decades after the deforestation. This eliminated a large amount of usable fresh water and also destroyed much of the riverine ecosystems of several large west-flowing rivers. Several fish species have been driven to the edge of extinction and some, such as the disturbed Tokios coral reef formations in the Indian Ocean, are effectively lost. In October 2008, Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, chairman and former chief executive of Nestlé, warned that the production of biofuels will further deplete the world's water supply.

Overview of regions suffering crisis impacts[edit]

There are many other countries of the world that are severely impacted with regard to humanhealth and inadequate drinking water. The following is a partial list of some of the countries with significant populations (numerical population of affected population listed) whose only consumption is of contaminated water:[53]

Several world maps showing various aspects of the problem can be found in this graph article.[54]

Water deficits, which are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries, may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China and India.[55] The water tables are falling in scores of countries (including Northern China, the US, and India) due to widespread overpumping using powerful diesel and electric pumps. Other countries affected include Pakistan, Iran, and Mexico. This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Even with the overpumping of its aquifers, China is developing a grain deficit. When this happens, it will almost certainly drive grain prices upward. Most of the 3 billion people projected to be added worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. Unless population growth can be slowed quickly, it is feared that there may not be a practical non-violent or humane solution to the emerging world water shortage.[56][57]

After China and India, there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, and Pakistan.

According to a UN climate report, the Himalayan glaciers that are the sources of Asia's biggest rivers – Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween and Yellow – could disappear by 2035 as temperatures rise.[58] It was later revealed that the source used by the UN climate report actually stated 2350, not 2035.[59] Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers.[60] India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades. In India alone, the Ganges provides water for drinking and farming for more than 500 million people.[61][62][63] The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, also would be affected.[64][65]

By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid lands commonly known as the outback. In June 2008 it became known that an expert panel had warned of long term, possibly irreversible, severe ecological damage for the whole Murray-Darling basin if it does not receive sufficient water by October.[66]Water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages resulting from drought. The Australian of the year 2007, environmentalist Tim Flannery, predicted that unless it made drastic changes, Perth in Western Australia could become the world’s first ghost metropolis, an abandoned city with no more water to sustain its population.[67] However, Western Australia's dams reached 50% capacity for the first time since 2000 as of September 2009.[68] As a result, heavy rains have brought forth positive results for the region.[68] Nonetheless, the following year, 2010, Perth suffered its second-driest winter on record[69] and the water corporation tightened water restrictions for spring.[70]

Outlook[edit]

Construction of wastewater treatment plants and reduction of groundwater overdrafting appear to be obvious solutions to the worldwide problem; however, a deeper look reveals more fundamental issues in play. Wastewater treatment is highly capital intensive, restricting access to this technology in some regions; furthermore the rapid increase in population of many countries makes this a race that is difficult to win. As if those factors are not daunting enough, one must consider the enormous costs and skill sets involved to maintain wastewater treatment plants even if they are successfully developed.

Reducing groundwater overdrafting is usually politically unpopular, and can have major economic impacts on farmers. Moreover, this strategy necessarily reduces crop output, something the world can ill-afford given the current population.

At more realistic levels, developing countries can strive to achieve primary wastewater treatment or secure septic systems, and carefully analyse wastewater outfall design to minimize impacts to drinking water and to ecosystems. Developed countries can not only share technology better, including cost-effective wastewater and water treatment systems but also in hydrological transport modeling. At the individual level, people in developed countries can look inward and reduce over consumption, which further strains worldwide water consumption. Both developed and developing countries can increase protection of ecosystems, especially wetlands and riparian zones. There measures will not only conserve bio ta, but also render more effective the natural water cycle flushing and transport that make water systems more healthy for humans.

A range of local, low-tech solutions are being pursued by a number of companies. These efforts center around the use of solar power to distill water at temperatures slightly beneath that at which water boils. By developing the capability to purify any available water source, local business models could be built around the new technologies, accelerating their uptake. For example, Bedouins from the town of Dahab in Egypt have installed Aqua Danial's Water Stellar, which uses a solar thermal collector measuring two square meters to distill from 40 to 60 liters per day from any local water source. This is five times more efficient than conventional stills and eliminates the need for polluting plastic PET bottles or transportation of water supply.[71]

Global experiences in managing water crisis[edit]

It is alleged that the likelihood of conflict rises if the rate of change within the basin exceeds the capacity of institution to absorb that change.[64] Although water crisis is closely related to regional tensions, history showed that acute conflicts over water are far less than the record of cooperation.

The key lies in strong institutions and cooperation. The Indus River Commission and the Indus Water Treaty survived two wars between India and Pakistan despite their hostility, proving to be a successful mechanism in resolving conflicts by providing a framework for consultation inspection and exchange of data. The Mekong Committee has also functioned since 1957 and survived the Vietnam War. In contrast, regional instability results when there is an absence of institutions to co-operate in regional collaboration, like Egypt's plan for a high dam on the Nile. However, there is currently no global institution in place for the management and management of trans-boundary water sources, and international co-operation has happened through ad hoc collaborations between agencies, like the Mekong Committee which was formed due to an alliance between UNICEF and the US Bureau of Reclamation. Formation of strong international institutions seems to be a way forward – they fuel early intervention and management, preventing the costly dispute resolution process.

One common feature of almost all resolved disputes is that the negotiations had a “need-based” instead of a “right–based” paradigm. Irrigable lands, population, technicalities of projects define "needs". The success of a need-based paradigm is reflected in the only water agreement ever negotiated in the Jordan River Basin, which focuses in needs not on rights of riparians. In the Indian subcontinent, irrigation requirements of Bangladesh determine water allocations of The Ganges River. A need based, regional approach focuses on satisfying individuals with their need of water, ensuring that minimum quantitative needs are being met. It removes the conflict that arises when countries view the treaty from a national interest point of view, move away from the zero-sum approach to a positive sum, integrative approach that equitably allocated the water and its benefits.

The Blue Peace framework developed by Strategic Foresight Group in partnership with the Governments of Switzerland and Sweden offers a unique policy structure which promotes sustainable management of water resources combined with cooperation for peace. By making the most of shared water resources through cooperation rather than mere allocation between countries, the chances for peace can be increased.[72] The Blue Peace approach has proven to be effective in cases like the Middle East[73] and the Nile basin.[74]NGOs like Water.org, There Is No Limit Foundation, and Charity:Water are leading the way in providing access to clean water.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Physical water scarcity and economic water scarcity by country. 2006
Global use of freshwater. 2016 FAO data.
Global Water Consumption 1900-2025, by region, in billions m3 per year.
In Meatu district, Simiyu Region, Tanzania (Africa), water most often comes from open holes dug in the sand of dry riverbeds, and it is invariably contaminated. Many girls are deprived of an education due primarily to this daily task.[18][19]
In 2012 in Sindh, Pakistan a shortage of clean water led people to queue to collect it where available
GEO-2000 estimate for 2025, 25 African countries are expected to suffer from water shortage or water stress.[36]
Wind and solar power such as this installation in a village in northwest Madagascar can make a difference in safe water supply.